Biodiversity serves as the foundation of human survival and development yet faces significant threats from rapid global climate fluctuations. Conservation biology seeks to address this global biodiversity crisis by developing more effective conservation strategies. By analyzing the relationship between genotypes and environmental factors, landscape genomics can reveal the adaptive genetic variations and evolutionary responses of species to climate change, leading to the rapid development of conservation biology. In this review, we discuss the major methodologies used to analyze the distribution patterns of adaptive genetic variation in species. We also summarize recent findings in landscape genomics as applied to the conservation of plants and animals. Finally, we address current challenges and suggest future research directions in the use of landscape genomics for conservation biology, offering targeted recommendations.