Based on transcriptome sequencing technology, we analyzed the transcriptome data of five common plants from the Maidica wetland of Tibet, including Hippuris vulgaris
L., Astragalus yunnanensis
Franch., Pedicularis kansuensis
Maxim., P. ikomai
Sasaki., and P. spicata
Pall. The pathways and genes affecting photosynthesis of plants in the Maidica wetland were compared and screened to explore the adaptive mechanisms of plateau plants regarding photosynthesis. Based on searching the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, most genes were annotated into cellular processes, especially metabolic processes. GO enrichment analysis of genes showed that more genes were enriched in photosystemⅠ, antenna system, photosystemⅡ, and photosynthesis; KEGG enrichment analysis showed that most genes in the five plants were significantly enriched in pathways related to photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna protein, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation. It is speculated that plants in the Maidica wetland may resist damage from strong light and maintain normal physiological activities through porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biological pathways. These results indicate that under the influence of extreme environmental plateaus conditions, Maidica wetland plants use various adaptive strategies in photosynthesis.